The Final exam will be based on lecture material and readings covered in the second half of the term.  It is NOT cumulative (on the whole term).  It will be based on:

  • Chapters 16-18 of Geosystems and online notes covering those chapters, also the online notes on Theological Issnes, Eolian and Desert Landforms

The exam  is NOT open book.

The exam will be monitored by PROCTORIO – all activity will be recorded and reviewed. Any academic dishonesty will result in a 0 and an “F’ in the course. I will be checking. No appeals.

Remember you are studying in Catholic learning environment and are expected to behave by standards of Christian morality and ethics.


  • You must take a Proctorio exam on a desktop or full laptop computer (tablets or smartphones are not allowed) which has a working web camera and microphone.
  • You must use CHROME and download the Proctorio Chrome extension. Download it now.
  • You must also complete the exam in a private location with a good Internet connection.
  • Make arrangements NOW. No webcam/microphone, NO GRADE.
  • Please watch the Proctorio student Guide video as this will give you an idea of what to you will experience while being proctored online. If you experience any technical issues please use the Proctorio support site.
  • You will need to present your student ID or driver’s license . Smile for a picture, then take your exam!

The exam will follow a similar format to the midterm:  40-50 multiple choice questions (based mostly on my notes);  4-5 “short answers” (a few sentences and/or a simple diagram to define a concept); 4 or 5 diagrams or lab-based questions.

For example … a multiple choice question might be: 

A glacier is …

     a. another word for glossolalia (a.k.a. speaking in tongues),

     b. a large accumulation of ice, on land or floating as an ice shelf attached to land.

    c. a hockey player who is an exceptionally speedy skater,

    d. the favourite food of the Loch Ness Monster.

     Hopefully you’ll pick “b”!

A short answer question might be: 

Define and distinguish between a sea stack fault and a sea cave.  A simple diagram with a brief, one or two sentence description would be sufficient.  I will give you some choice in this section (you will need to do 5 out of 7 options, for example).  Each is worth 3 marks.

A diagram/lab-based question might have a copy of a topographic map (like the Columbia Ice field maps) and ask you some questions based on it … for instance …

  • what is located at 867534?   You’ll say, “a glacier” or “a cirque” or whatever it is!
How to Study …

Read over the online notes.   I like the “onion method” of studying as opposed to cramming.  The onion method means I read over the notes tonight … and absorb some (one layer of knowledge).  I read over the notes tomorrow (another layer of knowledge).  And so on, and so on, gradually adding layers of knowledge.   You need to start today!  You cannot use your notes during exam.  If you do, you will get 0.

As you read the notes, do use the figures in the text (an online resources) as references. The figures/pictures really help you visualize what you’re studying!  You cannot use your text during exam.  If you do, you will get 0.

I will NOT ask you anything that is only in the text, but not in your notes!

A few things you should definitely review (not an exhaustive list!):

  • coastal landforms (tombolos etc)
  • glacial landforms (various moraines, cirques, etc)
  • soils – the sand/silt/clay triangle (know how to use it – I’ll give it to you though)
  • coral reefs
  • periglacial (arctic) landforms (pingos etc)
  • tides – what causes them/high and low tide
  • soil orders – know basic info about them
  • groundwater (aartesian wells etc)
  • wave motion and beach sorting
  • eolian erosion – how wind sculpts landscape
  • desert landscapes – how sand dunes form
  • soil profiles – how they work
What Should You Bring or NOT Bring?

You should bring …

  • Yourself!  (refreshed, relaxed, invigorated, empowered by the Spirit)
  • A pen (and pencil if you wish, for the diagrams).

You should NOT bring …

  • Your text or notes (sorry, this exam is not open book!)
  • Your cousin (a geography graduate student at Cambridge University)
  • Any crib notes, cheat sheets, or other “aids”
  • Any electronic device (calculations will be simple enough you can do them on paper) — no calculators, phones, pagers, mp3 players, iPods, iPads, iAnything-elses, Blackberries, laptops, desktops, GPS, etc.

That’s about it!  Study hard!  I know there is lots to know and lots to memorize (the plague of any introductory science course!), but go at it!

Try to remember that this is God’s creation we are studying (it’s one of the symptoms of the Fall that studying divine artistry seems like drudgery!).   As you study the Earth-Atmosphere system, you are studying God’s handiwork!  You are doing theology (learning about God)!  Hard though it is, try to keep that perspective going …

God bless,


Extra note on the soil texture triangle from Chapter 18 / Lab 6

What you need to remember is the numbers are always in the order: sand, silt, clay (drill it in to tour memory:  sand, silt, clay … sand, silt, clay… sand, silt, clay ..)


So if your sample is 20/70/10

So, start with sand.  In this example, the % sand is 20.  So, go along the bottom from right to left to 20.  Your sample will be along that 20 “line” somewhere.

Next go to silt — 70%.  Silt is along the right hand side.  Go down from the top to 70.  When you find 70 on the silt axis (edge), your sample will be along that line.

Last, go to clay — 10%.  Clay is along the left side.  Go to 10.  Clay is the easiest because the white lines go horizontally, so you go across on the 10 line.

And you’re there!  A beautiful SILT LOAM!

It is a bit confusing!  The key is to remember it’s always SAND-SILT-CLAY!  And to make sure you are using the correct side.  I will give you the identical diagram as above in the exam (I’ll just cut and paste it).

Hope that helps.  B